End of the 19th Century
When Sultan Hamad died in august 1896, the British recommended his cousin Hamoud as sultan. But Barghash's son, Khaled, who had already tried to seize power from Hamad, made a second attempt at snatching the throne. He was briefly successful this time but was ousted by the British, after 'the shortest war in history' (see the section on the shortest war in history).
On 27 August 1896 Hamoud was conducted into the Customs House and proclaimed Sultan of Zanzibar, amidst the salute of the ships. The new sultan supported the British government and on 5 April 1897 he signed a treaty to abolish the legal status of slavery in Zanzibar and Pemba. Shortly after this Queen Victoria awarded him the Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George. Hamoud sent his son Ali to school at Harrow in England where he represented his father at the coronation of King Edward VII.
Sultan Hamoud died on 18 July 1902 and the British proclaimed the 18-year-old Ali as the new sultan. From his school days he spoke English fluently, and continued to travel in Europe during his reign. In May 1911 Ali attended the coronation of King George V in England. While in Europe his health deteriorated and he abdicated in December 1911. He spent the last seven years of his life in Europe, and died in Paris in December 1918. Khalifa bin Harub, a cousin of Ali, became Sultan Khalifa II on 16 December 1911.